While golden Alexander and wild parsnip may look strikingly similar, these plants are in their own separate genus and species and have completely different growing habits and toxicity levels to humans.
So, in this guide, we’ll discuss how to tell these similar-looking plants apart and go into detail about their unique characteristics, native ranges and habitats, ideal growing conditions, and toxicity levels. Read on to learn more!
Golden Alexander vs. Wild Parsnip: A Quick Look
|Golden Alexander||Wild Parsnip|
|Plant Classification||Zizia aurea||Pastinaca sativa|
|Plant Characteristics||Perennial, herbaceous plant that grows in colonies. Can grow up to 2-3 feet tall and 18-24 inches wide. Tiny yellow flowers grow in clusters called umbels. Has compound leaves comprised of three to five leaflets with serrated margins. Plant leaves are shiny and darker green.||Perennial, herbaceous plant that grows in colonies. Can grow up to 4-5 feet tall. Tiny yellow flowers grow in clusters called umbels. Has compound leaves comprised of three leaflets that are rounded, scalloped, and serrated along the margins. Plant leaves are yellow-green.|
|Native Range and Habitats||Native to Eastern North America. Habitats include moist black soil prairies, grasslands, meadows within or near woodlands, limestone bedrock and bluffs, and areas such as unused fields and power line clearings.||Native to Eurasia. Considered highly invasive in North America. Habitats include disturbed areas, meadows, roadsides, and pastures.|
|Ideal Growing Conditions||Can thrive in full to partial sun. Prefers moist, well-draining loamy or clay soil with high organic content. USDA growing Zones 3a-8b.||Thrives in full sun but can tolerate partial shade. Prefers well-draining, loose soil with a neutral pH. Long root system requires non-compacted, aerated soil. USDA growing Zones 2-9.|
|Toxicity||Some reports of vomiting when ingesting roots, but generally not considered toxic to humans unless roots are ingested.||While root is edible, above-ground parts of plant secrete highly irritating rash-causing oils.|
While golden Alexander (Zizia aurea) and wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) are classified in their own genus and species, these herbaceous plants do belong to the same flowering plant family, Apiaceae. This family includes many culinary plants like celery, parsley, carrot, dill, and fennel. Notably, it also contains the highly toxic plant, giant hogweed.
Golden Alexander vs. Wild Parsnip: Plant Characteristics
Upon first glance, these plants can look strikingly similar. For instance, they’re both non-woody perennials that produce tiny yellow flowers in clusters called umbels. Umbels grow from upright stems and then spread outward into flat discs or umbrella-shaped clusters of tiny flowers. They create an almost lace-like appearance and is the reason for one wild carrot’s common name of Queen Anne’s lace. The umbels of the plants are slightly different, with wild parsnip displaying flatter, disc-shaped umbels, and golden Alexander displaying more umbrella-shaped umbels.
They both have small compound leaves, which means that leaf is actually comprised of two or more leaflets that are joined to a single stem. While both plants have compound leaves, you can tell them apart by looking at the shape of the leaves along the edges (botanically referred to as the margin). The leaves of golden Alexander are narrow, triangular and sharply serrated along the margin, whereas the leaves of wild parsnip are rounded, scalloped, and serrated along the margin. Wild parsnip also tends to have yellow-green leaves, resembling the color of celery leaves.
Another way to distinguish the plants is to compare their heights at maturity. You’ll notice that golden Alexander only reaches 2-3 feet in height at maturity, while wild parsnip can reach 4-5 feet tall.
Native Ranges and Habitats
One significant difference between golden Alexander and wild parsnip is their native vs. invasive classifications. Golden Alexander is a wildflower native to Eastern North America, whereas wild parsnip is native to Eurasia and considered a highly invasive species across North America. Generally, invasive species thrive in disturbed areas that native plants have a more difficult time adapting to, and wild parsnip is one example of an invasive species with this growing habit. It tends to colonize areas disturbed by human development or natural disasters. Also, you can often see it growing along roadsides or in abandoned fields that were intensively used for agriculture.
Golden Alexander grows in some similar habitats as wild parsnip, but spreads in a more ecologically balanced manner. As a rather hardy wildflower, you can find golden Alexander growing in a wide range of habitats such as limestone bedrock, bluffs, black soil prairies, meadows, and the edges of forests.
Ideal Growing Conditions
As a wildflower that prefers to grow in open areas, golden Alexander thrives in full sun but can tolerate growing in partial shade. This plant loves moisture and can grow in boggy areas that retain moisture in the soil. It also thrives in moist, well-draining soil. Since it’s a fairly hardy plant, golden Alexander can adapt to less moist conditions once established, but it will not necessarily thrive. This plant prefers loamy or clay soil with high organic content. Its growing zone extends from USDA Zones 3a-8b.
Wild parsnip prefers to grow in loose, well-draining aerated soil with a neutral pH that can accommodate its long roots. Typically, this plant thrives in areas with full sun, although it will grow in some partial shade. In North America, intentionally growing wild parsnip is highly discouraged due to its invasive nature and toxicity of aerial parts of the plants to humans.
Golden Alexander vs. Wild Parsnip: Toxicity
The most crucial reason to know how to distinguish these two plants is that the aerial portions of wild parsnip can cause a significant photo-sensitive effect on our skin. Golden Alexander does not have this toxic effect.
Like its relative, giant hogweed, the leaves and stems of wild parsnip secrete a toxin that inhibits our skin’s ability to protect from the sun’s UV rays. Without wearing proper protection, contact with wild parsnip can result in significant burns after UV exposure. If you suspect you’ve come across wild parsnip and you’re not wearing the proper protective gear, do not touch this plant.